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Peer-Reviewed Journal Article References:
Allan, N. P., Albanese, B. J., Judah, M. R., Gooch, C. V., & Schmidt, N. B. (2020). A multimethod investigation of the impact of attentional control on a brief intervention for anxiety and depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 88(3), 212–225.

Barber, J. P., Milrod, B., Gallop, R., Solomonov, N., Rudden, M. G., McCarthy, K. S., & Chambless, D. L. (2020). Processes of therapeutic change: Results from the Cornell-Penn Study of Psychotherapies for Panic Disorder. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 67(2), 222–231.

Beeney, J. E., Stepp, S. D., Hallquist, M. N., Scott, L. N., Wright, A. G. C., Ellison, W. D., Nolf, K. A., & Pilkonis, P. A. (2015). Attachment and social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 6(3), 207–215. 

Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., & Morris, T. L. (2000). Behavioral treatment of childhood social phobia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(6), 1072–1080.

Chambless, D. L., Allred, K. M., Chen, F. F., McCarthy, K. S., Milrod, B., & Barber, J. P. (2017). Perceived criticism predicts outcome of psychotherapy for panic disorder: Replication and extension. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(1), 37–44.

Chen, R., Niehorster, D. C., & Li, L. (2018). Effect of travel speed on the visual control of steering toward a goal. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 44(3), 452–467.

Cludius, B., Külz, A. K., Landmann, S., Moritz, S., & Wittekind, C. E. (2017). Implicit approach and avoidance in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126(6), 761–773.

Conway, C. C., Zinbarg, R. E., Mineka, S., & Craske, M. G. (2017). Core dimensions of anxiety and depression change independently during adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126(2), 160–172.

Erceg-Hurn, D. M., & McEvoy, P. M. (2018). Bigger is better: Full-length versions of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale outperform short forms at assessing treatment outcome. Psychological Assessment, 30(11), 1512–1526. 

Elkins, R. M., Pincus, D. B., & Comer, J. S. (2014). A psychometric evaluation of the Panic Disorder Severity Scale for children and adolescents. Psychological Assessment, 26(2), 609–618.

Gadassi, R., Snir, A., Berenson, K., Downey, G., & Rafaeli, E. (2014). Out of the frying pan, into the fire: Mixed affective reactions to social proximity in borderline and avoidant personality disorders in daily life. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(3), 613–622.

Gloster, A. T., Wittchen, H.-U., Einsle, F., Lang, T., Helbig-Lang, S., Fydrich, T., Fehm, L., Hamm, A. O., Richter, J., Alpers, G. W., Gerlach, A. L., Ströhle, A., Kircher, T., Deckert, J., Zwanzger, P., Höfler, M., & Arolt, V. (2011). Psychological treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia: A randomized controlled trial to examine the role of therapist-guided exposure in situ in CBT.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(3), 406–420. 

Hoffart, A. (2016). Cognitive models for panic disorder with agoraphobia: A study of disaggregated within-person effects.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(9), 839–844.

Jacobson, N. C., & Newman, M. G. (2017). Anxiety and depression as bidirectional risk factors for one another: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 143(11), 1155–1200.

Levinson, C. A., Zerwas, S., Calebs, B., Forbush, K., Kordy, H., Watson, H., Hofmeier, S., Levine, M., Crosby, R. D., Peat, C., Runfola, C. D., Zimmer, B., Moesner, M., Marcus, M. D., & Bulik, C. M. (2017). The core symptoms of bulimia nervosa, anxiety, and depression: A network analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126(3), 340–354.

López Bermúdez, M. Á., García, R. F., & Calvillo, M. (2010). An application of functional analytic psychotherapy in a case of anxiety panic disorder without agoraphobia. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 6(4), 356–372. 

Martinussen, M., Gundersen, E., & Pedersen, R. (2011). Predicting fear of flying and positive emotions towards air travel.Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 1(2), 70–74.

Naaz, S., Balachander, S., Srinivasa Murthy, N., MS, B., Sud, R., Saha, P., Narayanaswamy, J. C., Reddy YC, J., Jain, S., Purushottam, M., & Viswanath, B. (2020). Association of SAPAP3 allelic variants with symptom dimensions and pharmacological treatment response in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. Advance online publication.

Naragon-Gainey, K., Prenoveau, J. M., Brown, T. A., & Zinbarg, R. E. (2016). A comparison and integration of structural models of depression and anxiety in a clinical sample: Support for and validation of the tri-level model. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(7), 853–867.

Niileksela, C. R., Ghosh, A., & Janis, R. A. (2020). Dynamic changes in generalized anxiety and depression during counseling.Journal of Counseling Psychology. Advance online publication.

Probst, T., Berger, T., Meyer, B., Späth, C., Schröder, J., Hohagen, F., Moritz, S., & Klein, J. P. (2020). Social phobia moderates the outcome in the EVIDENT study: A randomized controlled trial on an Internet-based psychological intervention for mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 88(1), 82–89.

Puliafico, A. C., Comer, J. S., & Kendall, P. C. (2007). Social phobia in youth: The diagnostic utility of feared social situations.Psychological Assessment, 19(1), 152–158.

Ramsey, J. R. (2013). Institutional distance: A measurement validation and link to job and international business travel strain.International Journal of Stress Management, 20(3), 163–192.

Reese, E. D., Conway, C. C., Anand, D., Bauer, D. J., & Daughters, S. B. (2019). Distress tolerance trajectories following substance use treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 87(7), 645–656. 

Rogers, A. H., Gallagher, M. W., Garey, L., Ditre, J. W., Williams, M. W., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2020). Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale–20: An empirical evaluation of measurement invariance across race/ethnicity, sex, and pain. Psychological Assessment.Advance online publication.

Roos, C. R., Bowen, S., & Witkiewitz, K. (2017). Baseline patterns of substance use disorder severity and depression and anxiety symptoms moderate the efficacy of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(11), 1041–1051.

Rosnick, C. B., Wetherell, J. L., White, K. S., Andreescu, C., Dixon, D., & Lenze, E. J. (2016). Cognitive-behavioral therapy augmentation of SSRI reduces cortisol levels in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized clinical trial.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(4), 345–352. 

Schwartze, D., Barkowski, S., Strauss, B., Burlingame, G. M., Barth, J., & Rosendahl, J. (2017). Efficacy of group psychotherapy for panic disorder: Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 21(2), 77–93.

Torvik, F. A., Welander-Vatn, A., Ystrom, E., Knudsen, G. P., Czajkowski, N., Kendler, K. S., & Reichborn-Kjennerud, T. (2016). Longitudinal associations between social anxiety disorder and avoidant personality disorder: A twin study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(1), 114–124.

Wadsworth, L. P., Potluri, S., Schreck, M., & Hernandez-Vallant, A. (2020). Measurement and impacts of intersectionality on obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms across intensive treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 90(4), 445–457.

Wolitzky-Taylor, K., Krull, J., Rawson, R., Roy-Byrne, P., Ries, R., & Craske, M. G. (2018). Randomized clinical trial evaluating the preliminary effectiveness of an integrated anxiety disorder treatment in substance use disorder specialty clinics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 86(1), 81–88. 

Zilcha-Mano, S., McCarthy, K. S., Dinger, U., Chambless, D. L., Milrod, B. L., Kunik, L., & Barber, J. P. (2015). Are there subtypes of panic disorder? An interpersonal perspective. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(5), 938–950.

Additional References:
Almqvist, F., Dahl, A. A., Høglend, P., & Rosenberg, H. (November 2005). Treatment of Anxiety Disorders. SBU Summary and Conclusions, 329. Retrieved from

Back, S. E., PhD, & Brady, K. T., MD, PhD. (2008 November). Anxiety Disorders with Comorbid Substance Use Disorders: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations. Psychiatr Ann, 38(11), 724729. doi:10.3928/004857132008110101.

Barlow, D. H., & Kennedy, K. A. (Feb 2016). New approaches to diagnosis and treatment in anxiety and related emotional disorders: A focus on temperament. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 57(1), 820.

Batelaan, N. M., De Graaf, R., Spijker, J., Smit, J. H., Van Balkom, A. J., Vollebergh, W. A., & Beekman, A. T. (Feb 2010). The Course of Panic Attacks in Individuals with Panic Disorder and Subthreshold Panic Disorder: A PopulationBased Study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 121(½), 3039.

Beamish, P. M., Granello, P. F., Granello, D. H., Mcsteen, P. B., Bender, B. A., & Hermon, D. (1996). Outcome Studies in the Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Review. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74(5), 460467. doi:10.1002/j.15566676.1996.tb01893.x

Beesdo, K., PhD, Knappe, S., DiplPsych, & Pine, D. S., MD. (2009 September). Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Developmental Issues and Implications for DSMV. Psychiatr Clin North Am, 32(2), 483524. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2009.06.002.

Busch, F. N., Oquendo, M. A., Sullivan, G. M., & Sandberg, L. S. (2010). An Integrated Model of Panic Disorder. Neuropsychoanalysis, 12(1), 6779. doi:10.1080/15294145.2010.10773631

Bystritsky, A., MD, PhD, Khalsa, S. S., MD, PhD, Cameron, M. E., PhD, & Schiffman, J., MD, MA, MBA. (January 2013). Current Diagnosis and Treatment of Anxiety Disorders. P&T, 38(1), 3257.

Carpenter, A. L., Pincus, D. B., Conklin, P. H., Wyszynski, C. M., Chu, B.C., & Comer, J. S. (May 2016). Assessing cognitivebehavioral clinical decisionmaking among trainees in the treatment of childhood anxiety. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 10(2), 109116.

Chen, J., Tsuchiya, M., Kawakami, N., & Furukawa, T. A. (2009). Nonfearful vs. Fearful Panic Attacks: A General Population Study from the National Comorbidity Survey. Journal of Affective Disorders, 112(13), 273278. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2008.04.014

Chen, Y., Lin, H., & Lee, H. (June 2009). Pregnancy Outcomes Among Women with Panic Disorder — Do Panic Attacks During Pregnancy Matter? Journal of Affective Disorders, 120(13), 258262. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2009.04.025

Coles, M. E., Phillips, K. A., Menard, W., Pagano, M. E., Fay, C., Weisberg, R. B., & Stout, R. L. (2006). Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Social Phobia: CrossSectional and Prospective Data. Depression and Anxiety23(1), 2633.

Curth, N. K., BrinckClaussen, U. Ø., Davidsen, A. S., Lau, M. E., Lundsteen, M., Mikkelsen, J. H., Csillag, C., Hjorthøj, C., Nordentoft, M., … Eplov, L. F. (2017). Collaborative Care for Panic Disorder, Generalised Anxiety Disorder and Social Phobia in General Practice: Study Protocol for Three ClusterRandomised, Superiority Trials. Trials18(1), 382. doi:10.1186/s1306301721203

Dattilio, F. M. (2001). Crisis Intervention Techniques for Panic Disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 55(3), 388405. doi:10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.2001.55.3.388.

Duits, P., Richter, J., Baas, J. M. P., Engelhard, I. M., LimbergThiesen, A., Heitland, I., Hamm, A. O., & Cath, D. C. (May 2017). Enhancing effects of contingency instructions on fear acquisition and extinction in anxiety disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126(4), 378391.

DuPont, R. (1997). Panic Disorder and Addiction: The Clinical Issues of Comorbidity. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 61.

Elkins, R. M., Gallo, K. P., Pincus, D. B., & Comer, J. S. (2015). Moderators of Intensive Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Panic Disorder: The Roles of Fear and Avoidance. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 21(1), 3036. doi:10.1111/camh.12122.

ErcegHurn, D. M., & McEvoy, P. M. (Nov 2018). Bigger is better: Fulllength versions of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale outperform short forms at assessing treatment outcome. Psychological Assessment, 30(11), 15121526.

Goetter, E. M., Frumkin, M. R., Palitz, S. A., Swee, M. B., Baker, A. W., Bui, E., & Simon, N. M. (Feb 2020). Barriers to mental health treatment among individuals with social anxiety disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Psychological Services, 17(1), 512.

Goodwin, D. W. (1987). Anxiety. New York: Ballantine Books.

Goodwin G. M. (2015). The Overlap between Anxiety, Depression, and ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience17(3), 249260.

Goodwin, R. D., & Gotlib, I. H. (2004). Panic Attacks and Psychopathology Among Youth. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 109: 216221. Retrieved from

Gray, P. (2011). The Decline of Play and the Rise of Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents. American Journal of Play, 3(4), 443463. Retrieved from

Greist, J. H., M.D., Jefferson, J. W., M.D., & Marks, I. M. (2005). Anxiety and Its Treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Handly, R., & Neff, P. (1987). The Rain Barrel Theory. In Anxiety & Panic Attacks: Their Cause and Cure: The FivePoint LifePlus Program for Conquering Fear, 3942, New York: Fawcett Crest.

Hara, N., Nishimura, Y., Yokoyama, C., Inoue, K., Nishida, A., Tanii, H., . . . Okazaki, Y. (2012). The Development of Agoraphobia is Associated with The Symptoms and Location of A Patients First Panic Attack. BioPsychoSocial Medicine, 6(12), 18. doi:10.1186/17510759612

Heller, A. S., Fox, A. S., & Davidson, R. J. (Mar 2019). Parsing affective dynamics to identify risk for mood and anxiety disorders. Emotion, 19(2), 283291.

Hoffart, Asle & M. Hedley, Liv & Svanøe, Karol & Sexton, Harold. (2014). Cognitive and Guided Mastery Therapies for Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia: 18Year LongTerm Outcome and Predictors of LongTerm Change. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. 23(1), 113. doi:10.1002/cpp.1934.

Iketani, T., Kiriike, N., Stein, M. B., Nagao, K., Nagata, T., Minamikawa, N., Fukuhara, H. (2002). Relationship between Perfectionism, Personality Disorders and Agoraphobia in Patients with Panic Disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 106(3), 171178. doi:10.1034/j.16000447.2002.02361.x

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